So far we have focused on the hierarchy of the operators (from particles to organisms). But many systems in nature are not operators, but consist of operators. We view such non-operator systems as 'interaction systems'. In this page we focus on the analysis of hierarchy in interaction systems. Questions that are posed are: 1. How can one distinguish 'layers' or 'levels' in interaction systems?, and 2. Is it possible or impossible to agree on a single hierarchy in interaction systems?

The following studies offer additional information:
General laws and centripetal science.
Jagers op Akkerhuis G.A.J.M. (2014). European Review 22: 113-144
Analysing hierarchy in the organisation of biological and physical systems.
Jagers op Akkerhuis G.A.J.M. (2008). Biological reviews 83: 1-12

Interaction systems and their importance in nature and science

Interaction systems are a beloved subject of study in the sciences. For example a river is an interaction system, and a forest, a cloud, a city and a society. For these systems scientists have developed fluid dynamics, sociology, economy, ecology, etc. An it is mainly in relation to the dynamics of interaction systems that scientist talk about tipping points, fractals, self organising criticality, the butterfly effect, deterministic chaos and 'the edge of chaos', the scaling laws of Mandelbroth, Zipf and Pareto, the prisoners dilemma, Lotka-Volterra dynamics, the constructal law, evolution, development, succession, etc., etc. In all these cases one should realise that the approaches are based on a choice for a specific kind of objects, which in principle need to be defined propertly before any analysis can be undertaken. The operator hierarchy provides good services in this respect, because it defines all 'objects' (the operators) from the ground up, that is, in an axiomatic way.

How can one define a 'layer' or 'level' in an interaction system?

Is it possible to agree on a single hierarchy in interaction systems?

Basic dimensions: Displacement, Information, Construction and Energy (DICE).